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Iran Persian Gulf Star refinery (PGSR) operating, phase two فاز دوم پالايشگاه نفت ستاره خليج فارس

The procedures for presidential election and all other elections in Iran are outlined by the Supreme Leader. The President appoints the ministers, subject to the approval of the Parliament, as well as the approval of the Supreme Leader, who can dismiss or reinstate any of the ministers at any time, regardless of the decisions made by the President or the Parliament.

The legislature of Iran, known as the Islamic Consultative Assembly , is a unicameral body comprising members elected for four-year terms.

All parliamentary candidates and all legislation from the assembly must be approved by the Guardian Council. The Guardian Council comprises twelve jurists, including six appointed by the Supreme Leader.

Others are elected by the Parliament, from among the jurists nominated by the Head of the Judiciary. If a law is deemed incompatible with the constitution or Sharia Islamic law , it is referred back to the Parliament for revision.

The Supreme Leader appoints the head of the country's judiciary, who in turn appoints the head of the Supreme Court and the chief public prosecutor.

The decisions of the revolutionary courts are final and cannot be appealed. The Special Clerical Court handles crimes allegedly committed by clerics , although it has also taken on cases involving laypeople.

The Special Clerical Court functions independently of the regular judicial framework, and is accountable only to the Supreme Leader.

The Court's rulings are final and cannot be appealed. The officially stated goal of the government of Iran is to establish a new world order based on world peace , global collective security , and justice.

Since , Iran's nuclear program has become the subject of contention with the international community, mainly the United States. Many countries have expressed concern that Iran's nuclear program could divert civilian nuclear technology into a weapons program.

This has led the United Nations Security Council to impose sanctions against Iran which had further isolated Iran politically and economically from the rest of the global community.

In , the U. Director of National Intelligence said that Iran, if choosing to, would not be able to develop a nuclear weapon until As of [update] , the government of Iran maintains diplomatic relations with 99 members of the United Nations, [] but not with the United States , and not with Israel —a state which Iran's government has derecognized since the Revolution.

In April the U. On 1 September , the Iranian authorities took a step to enhance its relations with Qatar , and decided to grant Qatari passport holders tourist visas upon arrival at Iranian airports.

Besides, Qatari nationals were also permitted to obtain a single or multiple-entry visa from Iran's embassy in Doha.

The Islamic Republic of Iran has two types of armed forces: the regular forces of the Army , the Air Force , and the Navy , and the Revolutionary Guards , totaling about , active troops.

Iran also has around , Reserve Force, totaling around , trained troops. The government of Iran has a paramilitary, volunteer militia force within the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps , called the Basij , which includes about 90, full-time, active-duty uniformed members.

Up to 11 million men and women are members of the Basij who could potentially be called up for service.

It is the first time that an element of a foreign state was designated as a terrorist organization. The government of Iran supports the military activities of its allies in Syria, Iraq, and Lebanon Hezbollah with military and financial aid.

Since the Revolution, to overcome foreign embargoes, the government of Iran has developed its own military industry, produced its own tanks , armored personnel carriers , missiles , submarines , military vessels, missile destroyer , radar systems, helicopters , and fighter planes.

At that time every male person who had reached 21 years old must serve for military for two years. The conscription exempted women from military service after revolution.

Iranian constitution obliges all men of 18 years old and higher to serve in military or police bases. They cannot leave the country or be employed without completion of the service period.

Inappropriate situation of Iranian soldiers has caused violent incidents in recent years. Iran's economy is a mixture of central planning , state ownership of oil and other large enterprises, village agriculture, and small-scale private trading and service ventures.

The Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran is responsible for developing and maintaining the Iranian rial , which serves as the country's currency.

The government does not recognize trade unions other than the Islamic labour councils , which are subject to the approval of employers and the security services.

The objective is to move towards free market prices in a five-year period and increase productivity and social justice.

The administration continues to follow the market reform plans of the previous one, and indicates that it will diversify Iran's oil-reliant economy.

Iran has also developed a biotechnology , nanotechnology , and pharmaceutical industry. Currently, the government is trying to privatize these industries , and, despite successes, there are still several problems to be overcome, such as the lagging corruption in the public sector and lack of competitiveness.

Iran has leading manufacturing industries in the fields of automobile manufacture, transportation, construction materials, home appliances, food and agricultural goods, armaments, pharmaceuticals, information technology, and petrochemicals in the Middle East.

Economic sanctions against Iran , such as the embargo against Iranian crude oil, have affected the economy. Although tourism declined significantly during the war with Iraq, it has been subsequently recovered.

Over five million tourists visited Iran in the fiscal year of —, four percent more than the previous year.

Alongside the capital, the most popular tourist destinations are Isfahan , Mashhad , and Shiraz. In , Iran ranked 68th in tourism revenues worldwide.

Iran has the world's second largest proved gas reserves after Russia , with It also ranks fourth in oil reserves with an estimated ,,, barrels. In the early s, industry infrastructure was increasingly inefficient because of technological lags.

Few exploratory wells were drilled in In , a large share of Iran's natural gas reserves were untapped. The addition of new hydroelectric stations and the streamlining of conventional coal and oil-fired stations increased installed capacity to 33, megawatts.

In , Iran opened its first wind-powered and geothermal plants, and the first solar thermal plant was to come online in Iran is the world's third country to have developed GTL technology.

The government's goal of 53, megawatts of installed capacity by is to be reached by bringing on line new gas-fired plants , and adding hydropower and nuclear power generation capacity.

Iran's first nuclear power plant at Bushire went online in In Fatih Birol the head of the International Energy Agency said that fossil fuel subsidies should be redirected, for example to the health system.

Education in Iran is highly centralized. K—12 is supervised by the Ministry of Education , and higher education is under the supervision of the Ministry of Science and Technology.

The adult literacy rated The completion of the pre-university course earns students the Pre-University Certificate. Iran has increased its publication output nearly tenfold from through , and has been ranked first in terms of output growth rate, followed by China.

The Iranian nuclear program was launched in the s. Iran is the seventh country to produce uranium hexafluoride , and controls the entire nuclear fuel cycle.

Iranian scientists outside Iran have also made some major contributions to science. In , Ali Javan co-invented the first gas laser , and fuzzy set theory was introduced by Lotfi A.

Furthering research and treatment of diabetes, the HbA1c was discovered by Samuel Rahbar. Iranian physics is especially strong in string theory , with many papers being published in Iran.

In August , Iranian mathematician Maryam Mirzakhani became the first woman, as well as the first Iranian, to receive the Fields Medal , the highest prize in mathematics.

Iran is a diverse country, consisting of numerous ethnic and linguistic groups that are unified through a shared Iranian nationality.

Iran hosts one of the largest refugee populations in the world, with almost one million refugees, [] mostly from Afghanistan and Iraq.

According to the Iranian Constitution , the government is required to provide every citizen of the country with access to social security , covering retirement, unemployment, old age, disability , accidents, calamities, health and medical treatment and care services.

The majority of the population speak Persian , which is also the official language of the country. Others include speakers of a number of other Iranian languages within the greater Indo-European family, and languages belonging to some other ethnicities living in Iran.

In northern Iran, mostly confined to Gilan and Mazenderan , the Gilaki and Mazenderani languages are widely spoken, both having affinities to the neighboring Caucasian languages.

In parts of Gilan, the Talysh language is also widely spoken, which stretches up to the neighboring Republic of Azerbaijan.

Varieties of Kurdish are widely spoken in the province of Kurdistan and nearby areas. In Khuzestan , several distinct varieties of Persian are spoken.

Luri and Lari are also spoken in southern Iran. Azerbaijani , which is by far the most spoken language in the country after Persian, [] as well as a number of other Turkic languages and dialects, is spoken in various regions of Iran, especially in the region of Azerbaijan.

Circassian was also once widely spoken by the large Circassian minority, but, due to assimilation over the many years, no sizable number of Circassians speak the language anymore.

Percentages of spoken language continue to be a point of debate, as many opt that they are politically motivated; most notably regarding the largest and second largest ethnicities in Iran, the Persians and Azerbaijanis.

As with the spoken languages, the ethnic group composition also remains a point of debate, mainly regarding the largest and second largest ethnic groups, the Persians and Azerbaijanis, due to the lack of Iranian state censuses based on ethnicity.

Qashqai and Turkmens , and non-Iranian, non-Turkic groups incl. Other nongovernmental estimates regarding the groups other than Persians and Azerbaijanis are roughly congruent with the World Factbook and the Library of Congress.

However, many estimates regarding the number of these two groups differ significantly from the mentioned census; some place the number of ethnic Azerbaijanis in Iran between There are about 3,, adherents of Yarsanism , a Kurdish indigenous religion related to Zoroastrianism : making it the largest unrecognized minority religion in Iran.

Its followers are mainly Gorani Kurds and certain groups of Lurs. Christianity, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, and the Sunni branch of Islam are officially recognized by the government, and have reserved seats in the Iranian Parliament.

This changed after the fall of the Sasanian Empire by the centuries-long Islamization that followed the Muslim Conquest of Iran.

Iran was predominantly Sunni until the conversion of the country as well as the people of what is today the neighboring Republic of Azerbaijan to Shia Islam by the order of the Safavid dynasty in the 16th century.

Judaism has a long history in Iran , dating back to the Achaemenid conquest of Babylonia. Although many left in the wake of the establishment of the State of Israel and the Revolution, about 8, [] to 25, [] Jewish people live in Iran.

Iran has the largest Jewish population in the Middle East outside of Israel. Around , to , Christians reside in Iran, [] [] and Christianity is the country's largest recognized minority religion.

Most are of Armenian background, as well as a sizable minority of Assyrians. The earliest attested cultures in Iran date back to the Lower Paleolithic.

Owing to its geopolitical position, Iran has influenced cultures as far as Greece and Italy to the west, Russia to the north, the Arabian Peninsula to the south, and south and east Asia to the east.

The art of Iran encompasses many disciplines, including architecture , stonemasonry , metalworking , weaving , pottery , painting , and calligraphy.

Iranian works of art show a great variety in style, in different regions and periods. Greek iconography was imported by the Seleucids , followed by the recombination of Hellenistic and earlier Near Eastern elements in the art of the Parthians , [] with remains such as the Temple of Anahita and the Statue of the Parthian Nobleman.

By the time of the Sasanians, Iranian art came across a general renaissance. During the Middle Ages, Sasanian art played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art, [96] which carried forward to the Islamic world , and much of what later became known as Islamic learning—including medicine , architecture , philosophy , philology , and literature —were of Sasanian basis.

The Safavid era is known as the Golden Age of Iranian art, [] and Safavid works of art show a far more unitary development than in any other period, [] as part of a political evolution that reunified Iran as a cultural entity.

Iran's contemporary art traces its origins back to the time of Kamal-ol-Molk , [] a prominent realist painter at the court of the Qajar dynasty who affected the norms of painting and adopted a naturalistic style that would compete with photographic works.

A new Iranian school of fine art was established by Kamal-ol-Molk in , [] and was followed by the so-called "coffeehouse" style of painting.

Iran's avant-garde modernists emerged by the arrival of new western influences during World War II. The history of architecture in Iran goes back to the seventh millennium BC.

Iranian architecture displays great variety, both structural and aesthetic, developing gradually and coherently out of earlier traditions and experience.

Iran ranks seventh among UNESCO 's list of countries with the most archaeological ruins and attractions from antiquity.

Traditionally, the guiding formative motif of Iranian architecture has been its cosmic symbolism "by which man is brought into communication and participation with the powers of heaven".

According to Persian historian and archaeologist Arthur Pope , the supreme Iranian art, in the proper meaning of the word, has always been its architecture.

The supremacy of architecture applies to both pre- and post-Islamic periods. Iran's carpet-weaving has its origins in the Bronze Age, and is one of the most distinguished manifestations of Iranian art.

Iran's oldest literary tradition is that of Avestan , the Old Iranian sacred language of the Avesta , which consists of the legendary and religious texts of Zoroastrianism and the ancient Iranian religion , with its earliest records dating back to the pre-Achaemenid times.

Of the various modern languages used in Iran, Persian , various dialects of which are spoken throughout the Iranian Plateau, [] [] has the most influential literature.

Persian has been dubbed as a worthy language to serve as a conduit for poetry, and is considered one of the four main bodies of world literature.

Iranian philosophy originates from Indo-European roots, with Zoroaster 's reforms having major influences.

According to The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy , the chronology of the subject and science of philosophy starts with the Indo-Iranians, dating this event to BC.

The Oxford dictionary also states, "Zarathushtra's philosophy entered to influence Western tradition through Judaism, and therefore on Middle Platonism.

While there are ancient relations between the Indian Vedas and the Iranian Avesta , the two main families of the Indo-Iranian philosophical traditions were characterized by fundamental differences, especially in their implications for the human being's position in society and their view of man's role in the universe.

The Cyrus Cylinder , which is known as "the first charter of human rights ", is often seen as a reflection of the questions and thoughts expressed by Zoroaster, and developed in Zoroastrian schools of the Achaemenid era.

Among them are treatises such as the Zatspram, Shkand-gumanik Vizar , and Denkard , as well as older passages of the Avesta and the Gathas.

Iranian mythology consists of ancient Iranian folklore and stories, all involving extraordinary beings, reflecting attitudes towards the confrontation of good and evil , actions of the gods, and the exploits of heroes and fabulous creatures.

Myths play a crucial part in Iranian culture, and understanding of them is increased when they are considered within the context of actual events in Iranian history.

The geography of Greater Iran, a vast area covering present-day Iran, the Caucasus, Anatolia, Mesopotamia and Central Asia, with its high mountain ranges, plays the main role in much of Iranian mythology.

It draws heavily on the stories and characters of the Zoroastrian tradition, from the texts of the Avesta , the Denkard , and the Bundahishn.

Iran is the apparent birthplace of the earliest complex instruments, dating back to the third millennium BC. Multiple depictions of horizontal harps were also sculpted in Assyrian palaces, dating back between and BC.

Xenophon 's Cyropaedia mentions a great number of singing women at the court of the Achaemenid Empire. Likewise, Strabo 's Geographica reports that the Parthian youth were taught songs about "the deeds both of the gods and of the noblest men".

The history of Sasanian music is better documented than the earlier periods, and is especially more evident in Avestan texts.

Iranian traditional musical instruments include string instruments such as chang harp , qanun , santur , rud oud , barbat , tar , dotar , setar , tanbur , and kamanche , wind instruments such as sorna zurna , karna and ney , and percussion instruments such as tompak , kus , daf dayere , and naqare.

It was reformed by Parviz Mahmoud in , and is currently Iran's oldest and largest symphony orchestra. Later, by the late s, Ruhollah Khaleqi founded the country's first national music society, and established the School of National Music in Iranian pop music has its origins in the Qajar era.

The emergence of genres such as rock in the s and hip hop in the s also resulted in major movements and influences in Iranian music.

Before the Revolution, the Iranian national stage had become a famous performing scene for known international artists and troupes, [] with the Roudaki Hall of Tehran constructed to function as the national stage for opera and ballet.

Tjeknavorian, a celebrated Iranian Armenian composer and conductor, composed it in 25 years, and it was finally performed for the first time at Tehran's Roudaki Hall, with Darya Dadvar in the role of Tahmina.

A third-millennium BC earthen goblet discovered at the Burnt City , a Bronze Age urban settlement in southeastern Iran, depicts what could possibly be the world's oldest example of animation.

The artifact, associated with Jiroft , bears five sequential images depicting a wild goat jumping up to eat the leaves of a tree. The figures at Persepolis remain bound by the rules of grammar and syntax of visual language.

It is even possible to see a progenitor of the cinematic close-up shot in one of these works of art, which shows a wounded wild pig escaping from the hunting ground.

By the early 20th century, the five-year-old industry of cinema came to Iran. Mirza Ebrahim obtained a camera and filmed the Qajar ruler's visit to Europe.

Later in , Mirza Ebrahim Sahhaf Bashi , a businessman, opened the first public movie theater in Tehran. Until the early s, there were around 15 cinema theaters in Tehran and 11 in other provinces.

Iran's animation industry began by the s, and was followed by the establishment of the influential Institute for the Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults in January The majority of the production focused on melodrama and thrillers.

With the screening of the films Qeysar and The Cow , directed by Masoud Kimiai and Dariush Mehrjui respectively in , alternative films set out to establish their status in the film industry and Bahram Beyzai 's Downpour and Nasser Taghvai 's Tranquility in the Presence of Others followed soon.

Attempts to organize a film festival, which had begun in within the framework of the Golrizan Festival, resulted in the festival of Sepas in The endeavors also resulted in the formation of the Tehran's World Film Festival in After the Revolution of , and following the Cultural Revolution , a new age emerged in Iranian cinema, starting with Long Live!

Kiarostami, an acclaimed Iranian director, planted Iran firmly on the map of world cinema when he won the Palme d'Or for Taste of Cherry in Critics considered this a remarkable event in the history of Iranian cinema.

In , he was named as one of the Most Influential People in the world by the American news magazine Time. Iran's official New Year begins with Nowruz , an ancient Iranian tradition celebrated annually on the vernal equinox.

It is enjoyed by people adhering to different religions, but is considered a holiday for the Zoroastrians.

It was registered on the UNESCO 's list of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in , [] described as the Persian New Year , [] [] [] [] shared with a number of other countries in which it has historically been celebrated.

Iran's official calendar is the Solar Hejri calendar , beginning at the vernal equinox in the Northern Hemisphere , which was first enacted by the Iranian Parliament on 31 March Alternatively, the Lunar Hejri calendar is used to indicate Islamic events, and the Gregorian calendar remarks the international events.

Due to its variety of ethnic groups and the influences from the neighboring cultures, the cuisine of Iran is diverse.

Herbs are frequently used, along with fruits such as plums, pomegranate, quince, prunes, apricots, and raisins. To achieve a balanced taste, characteristic flavorings such as saffron, dried lime, cinnamon, and parsley are mixed delicately and used in some special dishes.

Onion and garlic are commonly used in the preparation of the accompanying course, but are also served separately during meals, either in raw or pickled form.

Lunch and dinner meals are commonly accompanied by side dishes such as plain yogurt or mast-o-khiar , sabzi , salad Shirazi , and torshi , and might follow dishes such as borani , Mirza Qasemi , or kashk e bademjan as the appetizer.

Being a mountainous country, Iran is a venue for skiing , snowboarding , hiking , rock climbing , [] and mountain climbing.

Iran's National Olympic Committee was founded in Wrestlers and weightlifters have achieved the country's highest records at the Olympics.

The Azadi Sport Complex , which is the largest sport complex in Iran, was originally built for this occasion. Football has been regarded as the most popular sport in Iran, with the men's national team having won the Asian Cup on three occasions.

The men's national team has maintained its position as Asia's best team, ranking 1st in Asia and 33rd in the world according to the FIFA World Rankings as of May [update].

Volleyball is the second most popular sport in Iran. Basketball is also popular, [] with the men's national team having won three Asian Championships since In , Iran made global headlines for international female champions boycotting tournaments in Iran in chess U.

Iran is one of the countries with the worst freedom of the press situation, ranking th out of countries on the Press Freedom Index as of Iran's first newspapers were published during the reign of Naser al-Din Shah of the Qajar dynasty in the midth century.

The country's most widely circulated periodicals are based in Tehran, among which are Etemad , Ettela'at , Kayhan , Hamshahri , Resalat , and Shargh.

Television was introduced in Iran in Iran received access to the Internet in According to Internet World Stats, as of [update] , around According to the statistics provided by the web information company of Alexa , Google Search is Iran's most widely used search engine and Instagram is the most popular online social networking service.

Fashion in Iran is divided into several historical periods. The exact date of the emergence of weaving in Iran is not yet known, but it is likely to coincide with the emergence of civilization.

Clothing in Iran is mentioned in Persian mythology. Ferdowsi and many historians have considered Keyumars to be the inventor of the use of animals' skin and hair as clothing.

Some historians have also mentioned Hushang as the first inventor of the use of living skins as clothing.

There are historical discoveries in northern Iran from about 6, BC that refer to wool weaving at the time.

Other discoveries in central Iran dating back to BC have shown that the animals' skin has not been the only clothing worn on the Iranian plateau since those years.

The clothing of ancient Iran took an advanced form, and the fabric and color of clothing became very important at that time.

Depending on the social status, eminence, climate of the region and the season, Persian clothing during the Achaemenian period took various forms.

The philosophy used in this clothing, in addition to being functional, also had an aesthetic role. Beauty pageant festivals inside Iran were not held after the revolution , and the last selection ceremony of the "beauty queen of Iran" was held in in this country.

Since then, a high number of Iranian girls participated in the Beauty pageant and Miss Universe outside of Iran. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Country in the Middle East. For other uses, see Iran disambiguation and Persia disambiguation. List of languages.

List of ethnicities. Unitary Khomeinist presidential Islamic republic. Main article: Name of Iran. Main article: History of Iran.

Further information: Prehistory of Iran and Archaeological sites in Iran. See also: Indo-European migrations. Main articles: Muslim conquest of Persia and Medieval Iran.

Main article: Safavid Iran. Main article: Afsharid dynasty. Main article: Zand dynasty. Main article: Qajar Iran. Main article: Pahlavi dynasty.

See also: Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran. Main article: Geography of Iran. See also: Agriculture in Iran and Environmental issues in Iran.

Hot desert climate. Cold desert climate. Hot semi-arid climate. Cold semi-arid climate. Hot-summer Mediterranean climate.

Continental Mediterranean climate. See also: Wildlife of Iran. See also: List of Iranian cities by population. Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari. Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad.

Razavi Khorasan. Sistan and Baluchestan. North Khorasan. South Khorasan. West Azerbaijan. East Azerbaijan. Caspian Sea. Persian Gulf.

Saudi Arabia. Largest cities or towns in Iran census. Main article: Politics of Iran. Main article: Judicial system of Iran.

Main article: Foreign relations of Iran. Major Iran—Saudi Arabia proxy conflict locations. See also: Iranian involvement in the Syrian Civil War.

Main article: Economy of Iran. Main article: Tourism in Iran. Main articles: Education in Iran and Science and technology in Iran.

Main article: Demographics of Iran. See also: Healthcare in Iran. Main article: Languages of Iran. Main article: Ethnicities in Iran. Main articles: Religion in Iran and Irreligion in Iran.

See also: Islamization of Iran. Main article: Culture of Iran. Main articles: Iranian art and Arts of Iran. See also: Achaemenid architecture , Parthian art , Sasanian art , Safavid art , Qajar art , and Iranian modern and contemporary art.

Main articles: Iranian architecture and Persian gardens. Ruins of the Tachara , part of the World Heritage site of Persepolis.

Main article: Persian carpet. Main articles: Literature in Iran , Iranian literature , and Persian literature. Main articles: Persian mythology and Iranian folklore.

Main article: Music of Iran. Main articles: Persian theater and Persian dance. Main articles: Cinema of Iran and History of Iranian animation. See also: List of festivals in Iran.

Main article: Public holidays in Iran. See also: Iranian calendars. Main article: Iranian cuisine. Main article: Sport in Iran. Weightlifter Kianoush Rostami wins gold at the Summer Olympics.

Taekwondo athlete Kimia Alizadeh wins bronze at the Summer Olympics. Main article: Media of Iran. Main article: Fashion in Iran.

The word also appears four times in Old Persian: One is in the Behistun inscription , where ariya- is the name of a language DB 4. Transliteration Allahu Akbar.

As referred to in art. The de facto motto however is: 'Independence, freedom, the Islamic Republic. Encyclopedia Britannica.

Retrieved 9 January The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency United States. Retrieved 24 May Tauris, p. The name 'Iran' disappeared from official records of the Saffarids, Samanids, Buyids, Saljuqs and their successor.

But one unofficially used the name Iran, Eranshahr, and similar national designations, particularly Mamalek-e Iran or 'Iranian lands', which exactly translated the old Avestan term Ariyanam Daihunam.

On the other hand, when the Safavids not Reza Shah, as is popularly assumed revived a national state officially known as Iran, bureaucratic usage in the Ottoman empire and even Iran itself could still refer to it by other descriptive and traditional appellations.

Newman Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire. Retrieved 21 June Archived from the original on 14 March Retrieved 13 September International Monetary Fund.

Retrieved 4 January Archived from the original on 9 February Retrieved 29 November United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 10 December Fishman, Joshua Oxford University Press.

Archived from the original on 5 August Retrieved 1 August National Geographic. Archived from the original on 12 December The Diplomat.

Archived from the original on 8 December Financial Tribune. Retrieved 28 May Tuckwell Press. Comparative Politics: Structures and Choices, 2nd ed.

Cengage Learning. Retrieved 25 August Brody; Oswyn Murray; Lisa R. Brody Encyclopedia of the ancient Greek world. Infobase Publishing.

Retrieved 17 August The Jews of Arab Lands. Jewish Publication Society. Ashgate Publishing. Encyclopaedia of Islam 2nd ed. Retrieved 27 May Iran: The Illusion of Power.

London: St. Martin's Press. Retrieved 8 August Archived from the original on 10 April Retrieved 23 January Retrieved 14 March Human Rights Watch.

Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved 7 August The Jerusalem Post JPost. Anti-Semitism and anti-Zionism in Iran. Israel Affairs. UK Parliament.

Retrieved 18 June Herbert Hunt 18 May Petro-Hunt LLC. Sasanian marble bust. National Museum of Iran , Tehran.

Royal Ontario Museum , Toronto. The Persian language is known to have one of the world's oldest and most influential literatures. New Persian literature flourished after the Arab conquest of Iran with its earliest records from the 9th century, [] and was developed as a court tradition in many eastern courts.

Not all Persian literature is written in Persian, as works written by Persians in other languages—such as Arabic and Greek—might also be included.

At the same time, not all literature written in Persian is written by ethnic Persians or Iranians, as Turkic, Caucasian, and Indic authors have also used Persian literature in the environment of Persianate cultures.

The most notable examples of ancient Persian architecture are the works of the Achaemenids hailing from Persis. Achaemenid architecture , dating from the expansion of the empire around BC, flourished in a period of artistic growth that left a legacy ranging from Cyrus the Great's solemn tomb at Pasargadae to the structures at Persepolis and Naqsh-e Rostam.

The architectural heritage of the Sasanian Empire includes, among others, castle fortifications such as the Fortifications of Derbent located in North Caucasus , now part of Russia , the Rudkhan Castle and the Shapur-Khwast Castle , palaces such as the Palace of Ardashir and the Sarvestan Palace , bridges such as the Shahrestan Bridge and the Shapuri Bridge , the Archway of Ctesiphon , and the reliefs at Taq-e Bostan.

Ruins of the Tachara , Persepolis. Tomb of Cyrus , Pasargadae. The Sasanian reliefs at Taq-e Bostan. Shapur-Khwast Castle , Khorramabad. Architectural elements from the time of Iran's ancient Persian empires have been adopted and incorporated in later period.

Xenophon , in his Oeconomicus , [] states:. The Persian garden , the earliest examples of which were found throughout the Achaemenid Empire, has an integral position in Persian architecture.

The enclosure of this symmetrically arranged planting and irrigation by an infrastructure such as a palace created the impression of "paradise".

Shah Square , Isfahan. Eram Garden , Shiraz. Tomb of Hafez , Shiraz. Shazdeh Garden , Kerman. Carpet weaving is an essential part of the Persian culture, [] and Persian rugs are said to be one of the most detailed hand-made works of art.

Achaemenid rug and carpet artistry is well recognized. Xenophon describes the carpet production in the city of Sardis, stating that the locals take pride in their carpet production.

A special mention of Persian carpets is also made by Athenaeus of Naucratis in his Deipnosophistae , as he describes a "delightfully embroidered" Persian carpet with "preposterous shapes of griffins ".

The Pazyryk carpet, a Scythian pile-carpet dating back to the 4th century BC that is regarded as the world's oldest existing carpet, depicts elements of Assyrian and Achaemenid designs, including stylistic references to the stone slab designs found in Persian royal buildings.

According to the accounts reported by Xenophon, a great number of singers were present at the Achaemenid court. However, little information is available from the music of that era.

The music scene of the Sasanian Empire has a more available and detailed documentation than the earlier periods, and is especially more evident within the context of Zoroastrian musical rituals.

Iranian music, as a whole, utilizes a variety of musical instruments that are unique to the region, and has remarkably evolved since the ancient and medieval times.

In traditional Sasanian music, the octave was divided into seventeen tones. By the end of the 13th century, Iranian music also maintained a twelve-interval octave, which resembled the western counterparts.

The Iranian New Year 's Day, Nowruz , which translates to "new day", is celebrated by Persians and other peoples of Iran to mark the beginning of spring on the vernal equinox on the first day of Farvardin , the first month of the Iranian calendar , which corresponds to around March 21 in the Gregorian calendar.

Charshanbe Suri and Sizdebedar begin on the eve of the last Wednesday of the preceding year in the Iranian calendar and last on the 13th day of the new year.

Islamic festivals are also widely celebrated by Muslim Persians. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Persian people.

For the breed of cat, see Persian cat. For other uses, see Persian disambiguation. See also: Perseus. Main article: Persian language.

See also: Iranian languages and Western Iranian languages. Main articles: Persian culture and Persian art.

Main article: Persian literature. See also: Persian literature in Western culture. Further information: Achaemenid architecture and Sasanian architecture.

See also: Iranian architecture. Main article: Persian gardens. Main article: Persian carpet. Main article: Persian traditional music.

Retrieved 11 December Total Iranian Persian users in all countries. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 3 February Retrieved 13 May Library of Congress — Federal Research Division.

May Retrieved 30 April Assessing Grammar: The Languages of Lars. Multilingual Matters. Sociolinguistic Status of Lori". The same is true of areas to the southwest, south, and east of the Lori language area Originally, it was the "land of horses" of the Sumerians Herzfeld, pp.

The name was adopted by Iranian tribes which established themselves there in the 9th century B. From that moment the name acquired the connotation of an ethnic region, the land of the Persians, and the Persians soon thereafter founded the vast Achaemenid empire.

A never-ending confusion thus set in between a narrow, limited, geographical usage of the term—Persia in the sense of the land where the aforesaid Persian tribes had shaped the core of their power—and a broader, more general usage of the term to designate the much larger area affected by the political and cultural radiance of the Achaemenids.

The confusion between the two senses of the word was continuous, fueled by the Greeks who used the name Persai to designate the entire empire.

Encyclopedia of the Ancient Greek World. Facts On File. In B. Cyrus called "the Great" by the Greeks overthrew the Median empire under Astyages and brought the Persians into domination over the Iranian peoples; he achieved combined rule over all Iran as the first real monarch of the Achaemenid dynasty.

Within a few years he founded a multinational empire without precedent—a first world-empire of historical importance, since it embraced all previous civilized states of the ancient Near East.

The Persian empire was a multinational state under the leadership of the Persians; among these peoples the Medes, Iranian sister nation of the Persians, held a special position.

History of the Persians. Robert Carter. Age of Faith. Simon and Schuster. Lonely Planet. The Persian Presence in the Islamic World.

Cambridge University Press. Ismail Pustaka Nasional Pte Ltd. The Legacy of Persia. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Perhaps by about , reference to actual Tajiks was directed mostly at Persian-speakers in Afghanistan and Central Asia; Penguin UK.

Tat was known to have been used at different times to designate Crimean Goths, Greeks and sedentary peoples generally, but its primary reference came to be the Persians within the Turkic domains.

Tat is nowadays specialized to refer to special groups with Iranian languages in the west of the Caspian Sea.

Robert Devereaux Muhakamat al-lughatain. Leiden: Brill. Princeton University Press. Online Etymology Dictionary. Book 7. Iran: What Everyone Needs to Know.

Oxford University Press. See: Al-Biruni Tehran: Miras-e Maktub. Translation: "The people of Khwarizm, they are a branch of the Persian tree.

See: Kramers, J. In Bearman, P. Asie du Sud-Est. Asie du Sud. Asie du Nord. Wikimedia Commons Wikinews Wikivoyage.

Menu de navigation Espaces de noms Article Discussion. Pour les articles homonymes, voir Iran homonymie et JEI.

Moghtaderi-Zadeh, F. Nadim, M. Eternal Iran. Pays et territoires du Moyen-Orient. Proche-Orient Moyen-Orient.

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